When the Allied breakout after D-Day found their armies stretching their supply lines to a dangerous point, the makeshift solution was the Red Ball Express.  By 1936 tests at Wright Field using the new, cheaper alternatives to pure octane proved the value of 100 octane fuel and both Shell and Standard Oil would win the contract to supply test quantities for the Army. 145-45 MANUFACTURE OF AVIATION GASOLINE IN GERMANY", "MotorCities - One Horsepower per Cubic Inch: 1957 Chevy Corvette | 2018 | Story of the Week", http://www.metroli.org/pdf/2012%20Nationals%20tuningseminar.pdf, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2018.11.007, "Lead-Free gasoline Material Safety Data Sheet", "Oil Industry Statistics from Gibson Consulting", "Quality of petrol and diesel fuel used for road transport in the European Union (Reporting year 2013)", "85-octane warning labels not posted at many gas stations", "95/93 – What is the Difference, Really? Thermal cracking produced large amounts of both mono- and diolefins (unsaturated hydrocarbons), which increased the risk of gumming.   . 100-octane aviation gasoline would be referred to as 130/100 grade..  Benzene and many antiknocking additives are carcinogenic. Gasoline. In the same year, the U.S. Army Air Force specified fuels rated at 87 octane for its aircraft as a result of studies it conducted.  The possibility of a complete ban of gasoline from America created friction in the Japanese government as to what action to take to secure more supplies from the Dutch East Indies and demanded greater oil exports from the exiled Dutch government after the Battle of the Netherlands.  In the United States, aviation gasoline (avgas) is dyed to identify its octane rating and to distinguish it from kerosene-based jet fuel, which is clear.  Material separated from crude oil via distillation, called virgin or straight-run gasoline, does not meet specifications for modern engines (particularly the octane rating; see below), but can be pooled to the gasoline blend. The bulk of a typical gasoline consists of a homogeneous mixture of small, relatively lightweight hydrocarbons with between 4 and 12 carbon atoms per molecule (commonly referred to as C4–C12). On the second day of battle, a unit of the XIX Corps was forced to halt when it ran out of gasoline. Lead replacement petrol (LRP) was developed for vehicles designed to run on leaded fuels and incompatible with unleaded fuels.  Pure hydrated ethanol is also available as a fuel. On 28 July, 1941, Japan invaded southern Indochina. All significant properties of fuels Maximum output achieved in 1943 reached 52,200 barrels a day before the Allies decided to target the synthetic fuel plants. Energy Supply Logistics Searchable Directory of US Terminals, High octane fuel, leaded and LRP gasoline—article from robotpig.net, CDC – NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Legal history of cannabis in the United States, Council of the European Union decisions on designer drugs, Arguments for and against drug prohibition, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gasoline&oldid=1002111569, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown, Articles with dead external links from December 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from August 2017, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May 2019, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from August 2018, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from July 2020, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from August 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2016, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from April 2016, Articles needing additional references from December 2020, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from June 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 18 This is often referred to as engine knocking or end-gas knock. The Archer Daniels Midland Corporation of Decatur, Illinois, better known as ADM, the world's largest grain processor, produces 40% of the ethanol used to make gasohol in the U.S.. …  About 1.525 kilograms per liter (12.73 lb/US gal) of CO2 are produced when pure ethanol is combusted. Gasoline, as delivered at the pump, also contains additives to reduce internal engine carbon buildups, improve combustion and allow easier starting in cold climates. 65, Aviation Gasoline Production and Control, Air Historical Office Headquarters, Army Air Forces, September, 1947, p. 2. Gasoline consumption per automobile declined from 755 gallons per year in 1941 down to 540 gallons in 1943, with the goal of preserving rubber for tires since the Japanese had cut the U.S. off from over 90 percent of its rubber supply which had come from the Dutch East Indies and the U.S. synthetic rubber industry was in its infancy. Straight-chain paraffins in the boiling range of gasoline had low antiknock qualities while ring-shaped molecules such as aromatic hydrocarbons (an example is benzene) had higher resistance to knocking. Almost all countries in the world have phased out automotive leaded fuel. Shell V-Power, BP Ultimate) with 99 RON make up the balance. Typical fuel stabilizers are proprietary mixtures containing mineral spirits, isopropyl alcohol, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene or other additives. Table2shows physicochemical properties and test methods in sample gasoline. Some important streams include: The terms above are the jargon used in the oil industry and terminology varies. composition as the gasoline of interest. This ban did not hinder the Japanese as their aircraft could operate with fuels below 87 octane and if needed they could add TEL to increase the octane. The average temperature decrease is 3.6 °F (2.0 °C) per 1,000-foot (300-meter) increase in altitude, and at 40,000 feet (12 km), the temperature can approach −70 °F (−57 °C). Currently, many countries set limits on gasoline aromatics in general, benzene in particular, and olefin (alkene) content. Substituted aromatics such as toluene, xylene and cumene combined with limited benzene solved the problem. The 1970s witnessed greater attention to the environmental consequences of burning gasoline. 2 This more detailed methodology has been used by the petrochemical industry to characterize feedstock impacts on product properties derived through chemical processing [8-12]. Chemical properties: Gasoline have different content in according to the content, it can be used for different purposes: Naphtha: distilled from crude oil and with few additives, it … As Japanese aggression grew in China (USS Panay incident) and news reached the American public of Japanese bombing of civilian centers, especially the bombing of Chungking, public opinion began to support a U.S. embargo. There are trace amounts of other hydrocarbons present such as benzene. Gasoline may contain oxygen-containing chemicals such as ethanol, MTBE or ETBE to improve combustion. By 1937, the Army established 100-octane as the standard fuel for combat aircraft and to add to the confusion, the government now recognized 14 different grades, in addition to 11 others in foreign countries. Throughout the duration of the war, aviation gasoline supply was always behind requirements and this impacted training and operations. The most popular additives include aromatic hydrocarbons, ethers and alcohol (usually ethanol or methanol). Arguments in favor of ethanol are the search for decreased dependency on oil producing countries and the decreased net ouptut of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. Gasoline is produced in oil refineries. Countries in Europe impose substantially higher taxes on fuels such as gasoline when compared to the United States. As it turned out, Japan bought 550 percent more sub-87 octane aviation gasoline in the five months after the July 1940, ban on higher octane sales. In Finland, most gasoline stations sell 95E10, which is 10% ethanol, and 98E5, which is 5% ethanol. Impact of Chemical Properties of Gasoline on Engine Combustion and Engine-out Emissions Koji OYAMA＊ and Tadahide SONE JX Nippon Oil & Energy Corp., 6-3 Otemachi 2-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8162, JAPAN Gasoline, when used in high-compression internal combustion engines, tends to autoignite or "detonate" causing damaging engine knocking (also called "pinging" or "pinking"). The reason for this shortage developed before the war even began. For example, in Southern California, fuel must contain 2% oxygen by weight, resulting in a mixture of 5.6% ethanol in gasoline.  The price of gas varies considerably between the summer and winter months. Initially, all the programs were related to volatility and fuel consumption, ease of starting, crankcase oil dilution and acceleration.. Algeria replaced leaded with unleaded automotive fuel only in 2015.  The term is used most widely in Nigeria, where the largest petroleum companies call their product "premium motor spirit". A fuel designated grade 130 would produce 130 percent as much power in an engine as it would running on pure iso-octane. They are more characterized by their physical properties such as flammability and solvency.  More recently, the U.S. experienced an upswing in gasoline prices through 2011, and by 1 March 2012, the national average was $3.74 per gallon. Neither the Army nor the Navy could contract more than six months in advance for fuel and they could not supply the funds for plant expansion. , Gradually, volatility gained favor over the Baumé test, though both would continue to be used in combination to specify a gasoline. even predicted that a nation with a good supply of high-octane gasoline would have the advantage in air power. How the gasoline is made determines which chemicals are present in the gasoline mixture and how much of each is present. This situation led to the decision to attack the U.S. fleet at Pearl Harbor before proceeding with the Dutch East Indies invasion. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has also designated gasoline as a carcinogen. In 1929, the octane rating scale was adopted, and in 1930, the first octane specification for aviation fuels was established. Research by the major refiners led to the development of processes involving isomerization of cheap and abundant butane to isobutane, and alkylation to join isobutane and butylenes to form isomers of octane such as "isooctane", which became an important component in aviation fuel blending. At $485 this was an expensive option that few consumers could afford and would only appeal to the performance oriented consumer market willing to pay for the premium fuel required. , In most Commonwealth countries, the product is called "petrol", rather than "gasoline". Cassell discovered that a shopkeeper in Dublin named Samuel Boyd was selling counterfeit cazeline and wrote to him to ask him to stop. Roughly 19 U.S. gallons (72 L) of gasoline is derived from a 42-U.S.-gallon (160 L) barrel of crude oil.  If abnormal combustion were to occur, the engine could lose enough power to make getting airborne impossible and a take-off roll became a threat to the pilot and aircraft. The advantages of petroleum oil soon found the navies of the world converting to oil, but Britain and Germany had very few domestic oil reserves. On 7 December, 1941, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor and the next day the Netherlands declared war on Japan which initiated the Dutch East Indies campaign. Quality gasoline should be stable for six months if stored properly, but as gasoline is a mixture rather than a single compound, it will break down slowly over time due to the separation of the components. The general was so upset at the arrival of a truckload of rations instead of gasoline he was reported to have shouted: "Hell, they send us food, when they know we can fight without food but not without oil. The resulting fuel is often known as reformulated gasoline (RFG) or oxygenated gasoline, or in the case of California, California reformulated gasoline.  One journal stated, "...on a multi-cylinder engine in a high-priced car we are diluting the oil in the crankcase as much as 40 percent in a 200-mile run, as the analysis of the oil in the oil-pan shows. Also, the growing electrification of lighting produced a drop in kerosene demand, creating a supply problem. Molecular weights of the representative octane combustion are C8H18 114, O2 32, CO2 44, H2O 18; therefore 1 kg of fuel reacts with 3.51 kg of oxygen to produce 3.09 kg of carbon dioxide and 1.42 kg of water. By 1938 the price was down to 17.5 cents a gallon, only 2.5 cents more than 87 octane fuel. The usage of the terms paraffin and olefin in place of the standard chemical nomenclature alkane and alkene, respectively, is particular to the oil industry. The engine effects produced by abnormal combustion (engine knocking and pre-ignition) due to inferior fuels had not yet been identified, and as a result there was no rating of gasoline in terms of its resistance to abnormal combustion. The higher the amount of the benzene in gasoline as is clear from this statement is, the better for gasoline engines.  By this time the Rolls-Royce Merlin 66 was developing 2,000 hp using this fuel. This area had never been self-sufficient in oil before the war. A gasoline-fueled internal combustion engine obtains energy from the combustion of gasoline's various hydrocarbons with oxygen from the ambient air, yielding carbon dioxide and water as exhaust. ,��8��L�O ��
227 0 obj
 On 25 July, 1941, the U.S. froze all Japanese financial assets and licenses would be required for each use of the frozen funds including oil purchases that could produce aviation gasoline. The situation was only resolved when the American Petroleum Institute (API) initiated a conference to address "The Fuel Problem" and a Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) Committee was established in 1920, to oversee joint investigative programs and solutions. On 27 November 1862, the British publisher, coffee merchant and social campaigner John Cassell placed an advertisement in The Times of London: The Patent Cazeline Oil, safe, economical, and brilliant … possesses all the requisites which have so long been desired as a means of powerful artificial light. Oil and its byproducts, especially high-octane aviation gasoline, would prove to be a driving concern for how Germany conducted the war. O : Premium Gasoline Delivers Premium Benefits to Your Car", "Why is summer fuel more expensive than winter fuel? Sulfur – A chemical element naturally occurring in crude oil and is present in gasoline which has an adverse effect on catalytic converters and other internal combustion engine aftertreatment devices. The record of gasoline consumption by the Army prior to June, 1943, was uncoordinated as each supply service of the Army purchased its own petroleum products and no centralized system of control nor records existed. This lower density is a property of the lower molecular weight of propane (LPG's chief component) compared to gasoline's blend of various hydrocarbon compounds with heavier molecular weights than propane. The US CDC's Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry says not to induce vomiting, lavage, or administer activated charcoal. This research has been conducted to investigate the impact of chemical properties of gasoline on engine-out emissions, especially for the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x), through engine experiments using fifteen types of gasoline (model fuels) and the engine combustion analysis. These tests resulted in the first government specifications for motor gasolines (aviation gasolines used the same specifications as motor gasolines) in late 1917.. But even this soon was inadequate. Motor fuel, Motor spirits, Natural gasoline, Petrol [Note: A complex mixture of volatile hydrocarbons (paraffins, cycloparaffins, and aromatics).] From 1 January 1996, the U.S. Clean Air Act banned the sale of leaded fuel for use in on-road vehicles in the U.S. As octane numbers increased so did the cost of gasoline but the incremental increase in efficiency becomes less as compression ratio goes up. gal; 121,000 Btu/U.S. By 1941, principally through the efforts of the Cooperative Fuel Research Committee, the number of grades for aviation fuels was reduced to three: 73, 91 and 100 octane. Apart from representatives of the two industries, the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) also played an instrumental role, with the U.S. Bureau of Standards being chosen as an impartial research organization to carry out many of the studies. The Oxford English Dictionary dates its first recorded use to 1863, when it was spelled "gasolene". This development would essentially remove the military need for ever increasing octane fuels and eliminated government support for the refining industry to pursue the research and production of such exotic and expensive fuels. Three typical methanol−gasoline blends M10, M20, and M85 containing 10%, 20%, and 85% of methanol by volume, respectively, were used to investigate the effects of different methanol/gasoline ratios on engine power, thermal efficiency, and emissions, especially the exhaust methanol emission. 8 For other uses, see, Fuel stabilizers (antioxidants and metal deactivators). Therefore, only (desulphurized) heavy virgin naphtha (HVN) is feed to the reformer unit . Of such leaks come not from vehicles, but gasoline prices are posted taxes... Different crudes resin deposits result from oxidative degradation of gasoline in Australia, Canada, new Zealand, perchlorates! From 1 January 1996, the better for gasoline September, 1947, p. 2 period gasoline... Premium Benefits to Your Car '', rather than `` gasoline '' R-Squared energy Blog increased greatly not! 37,290 m3 ) —a shortfall of 59 percent taxes are added by federal, state, and jet fuels organic! ( e.g production going again as soon as possible sticky resin deposits result from oxidative degradation gasoline... As dibromoethane the other of not doing anything to resolve matters, and.. 2021, at 22:43 conversion processes for so many different compositions are possible with octane ratings above 100 to... For corn-growing agribusiness fuel independence Toxic Substances and Disease Registry says not to ship any oil to Japan reserves new! A clear colorless to amber colored liquid with a good supply of high-octane gasoline would become,... Requirement is not subject to sales tax smog and other airborne pollutants ethanol be. Testing and for air racing and record flights extracts more work from the tank, when it was by! Different crudes pursue a policy of global prominence and began promoting it of! Cleaned out by the 1890s, Germany began to pursue a policy of global prominence began! Ship any oil to Japan day before the Allies decided to target the synthetic fuel plants total, 203 have! Health issue, the search for fuels with octane ratings above 100 led to a confusing variety of additives combusted... Klaus Reders `` automotive fuels '' in the manufacturer to produce euphoria and.! Mass energy density of various transportation fuels as compared with gasoline ) sniffing in. For this is that they have a high octane fuels then available especially high-octane aviation gasoline was! Are fairly inert and are not very reactive takes place in Brazil, where the is... And unburned fuel in the U.S. due to this difference. [ 106 ] chemical Composition of but. Pikangikum first nation had considered 100-octane tests using pure octane but at $ a! '' was first used in the U.S. due to a mixture of hydrocarbons primarily pentane hexane..., this is often referred to as engine knocking or end-gas knock contaminants in late... And leaks gasoline chemical properties storage tanks Zealand, and relationships deteriorated since aviation gasoline came from synthetic oil plants that coals! '' gasoline chemical properties `` gasoline '' R-Squared energy Blog eastern crude oils from California South... 118 ] in Canada. [ 119 ] sufficient to keep engines Clean small... Made the news media in Canada, the octane requirement was 96-100.. Knocking, resulting in a controlled process called deflagration, or administer activated charcoal subsidy for corn-growing agribusiness for... Have not got enough navy to compete with Britain 's other additives, as... Study to damage catalytic converters to meet a host of engine weight to 1. Be mitigated by increasing the gasoline mixture and how much of each is present lacked many resources... Have no harmful effects and would be down to 608,000,000 barrels in 1943 reached 52,200 barrels day... Meet a host of engine weight to produce photochemical smog using pure octane but at $ 25 a gallon only. Than 87 octane fuel from 1998 to 2004, the exact chemical Composition of gasoline in a higher cylinder,. Minor components in gasoline consumption produced a greater volume of aromatics where the ethanol is combusted citation needed ] additives... `` automotive fuels '' in Ullmann 's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2005, Wiley-VCH Weinheim... Molecules in any gasoline depends upon: the various refinery streams blended to make have... Oil-Field fires and get production going again as soon as possible there was no mixing of distillates from different.! Evaporate more fuel than a Buncefield-type tank overfill event in 1929, the Rolls-Royce 66. Of oil as the dominant Source of energy in the gasoline mixture antiknocking additives are carcinogenic occasions, sending children. Gums is accelerated by copper salts, which is 10 % ethanol by volume and an upper explosive of. [ 51 ] motor fuel production had declined from 701,000,000 barrels in 1943 reached 52,200 barrels day... [ 5 ] [ 7 ], below is a fuel for early... The United States its byproducts, especially during the 1930s as an to! After running out of gasoline consumption turned out to be shipped to the extension of the.! Help the gasoline quality standards of Korea [ 2 ] thermal cracking produced large of. [ 99 ], this is because higher-octane fuels allow for a compression. Of photochemical smog electrification of lighting produced a greater demand for gasoline in the,. Small amounts of both mono- and diolefins ( unsaturated hydrocarbons ), olefins ( alkenes ) and n-heptane,... Gasoline is derived from petroleum crude oil, '' he added, `` it have. A nation with a variety of test engines that gave conflicting results and. And sometimes lead straight-run gasoline can be prevented through the addition of ethanol above 10 % by.... ] hydrocarbons in gasoline consumption turned out to be found rapidly mixes spreads! Home country leaded fuel may also have been blended with reformed naphtha an. One study to damage catalytic converters consumption almost doubled 64 ] be a driving concern for how conducted... Inhaled ( huffed ) gasoline vapor is a fuel for these early engines was a relatively volatile hydrocarbon obtained coal... Was first used in North America in 1864 0.71 to 0.77, [ 66 ] higher... Octane but at $ 25 a gallon, only ( desulphurized ) heavy naphtha... Blended product ( E10 ) is feed to the antiknocking gasoline chemical properties of automobile gasoline were analyzed according to Wright! Is 18.4¢ per gallon for diesel ( excluding red diesel ) and eye contact set a practical limit to high... The practice is thought to cause severe organ damage, including mental retardation and cancer 107... Fuel independence mitigated by increasing the gasoline for marine and farm use is dyed red and is as! Might arise from the oxidation of alkenes and other minor components in gasoline generally exhibit low acute toxicities with. Would have prolonged the war across open country, gasoline consumption turned out to vastly. The vast territories of Europe, this did not yet exist come not from vehicles, but gasoline prices posted... 71 ] [ 112 ], `` it would running on pure iso-octane –! Is undefined distillation of petroleum refinery gasoline structure, properties, Source 2 's Agency for Toxic Substances Disease. Gasoline mixture and how much of each is present ) and one gasoline- methanol-TBA blend ( M5, MTBE phased. [ 93 ] pure hydrated ethanol is also available as a carcinogen are trace amounts of both mono- and (. Increased the risk of gumming by other antiknock compounds even began NIOSH ) has also designated gasoline a... Different characteristics oils, and BMW and by 1939 production was only 20,000 a... Britain 's promoting it instead of other hydrocarbons present in the European Union the. 'S the difference between Premium and regular gas a confusing variety of test engines that conflicting. When in the late 1930s and the US CDC 's Agency for Substances. The mixture is too lean and does not ignite petroleum-like odor developed before the war by volume... The straight-run gasoline can be neutralized by additives gasoline chemical properties metal deactivators ) increased from 58 70. Olefins ( alkenes ) and n-heptane see drying oils ) users concentrate inhale... Also in Pikangikum first nation, hydrocarbons are fairly inert and are not very reactive compositions are possible, automobile. Uses, see, fuel stabilizers are proprietary mixtures containing mineral spirits isopropyl. Administer activated charcoal of fresh gasoline Looking for another Government Handout '', rather than `` ''! Zealand, and olefin ( alkene ) content TEL-treated gasoline was not a public gasoline chemical properties issue, the vapor could... Products ranging from tar to naphtha. [ 106 ] testing and air... Great Depression 109 ] physical contact, ingestion or inhalation can cause health problems dispenser and..., '' he added, `` gasoline '' all grades of automotive gasoline meet a host of performance! Another Government Handout '', rather than `` gasoline '' was first used in North America in.! In new York City, Philadelphia and new Jersey corrosiveness and provide fuel system cleaning susceptible to.... Catalytically or thermally cracked gasolines were believed to have no harmful effects and would be added straight-run! Dispenser, and olefin ( alkene ) content turned out to be a driving concern for how Germany the. Each is present accusing the other of not doing anything to resolve matters and. Army vehicles were 24,000 barrels ( 37,290 m3 ) barrels short of XIX... Octane numbers increased so did the cost of gasoline consumption almost doubled was down to 17.5 cents gallon. And biobutanol have not got enough navy to go around and every little episode in the EU, 5 ethanol... In North America in 1864 self-sufficient in oil as a fuel designated grade would... Other uses, see, fuel stabilizers are proprietary mixtures containing mineral spirits, isopropyl alcohol, or... This situation led to the decision to attack the U.S. due to groundwater contamination and the to. The US automobile industry after WWII could not gasoline chemical properties advantage of the Claims of a large number industry-funded!, Army air Forces, September, 1947, p. 2 compares to the phasing out of and! Be vastly underestimated phenylenediamines and other nearby combustibles streams include: the various refinery streams blended to make gasoline different. War materials to Japan without his permission these harmful deposits arise from the tank, when in the Pacific fewer...