When the Allied breakout after D-Day found their armies stretching their supply lines to a dangerous point, the makeshift solution was the Red Ball Express. [40] By 1936 tests at Wright Field using the new, cheaper alternatives to pure octane proved the value of 100 octane fuel and both Shell and Standard Oil would win the contract to supply test quantities for the Army. 145-45 MANUFACTURE OF AVIATION GASOLINE IN GERMANY", "MotorCities - One Horsepower per Cubic Inch: 1957 Chevy Corvette | 2018 | Story of the Week", http://www.metroli.org/pdf/2012%20Nationals%20tuningseminar.pdf, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2018.11.007, "Lead-Free gasoline Material Safety Data Sheet", "Oil Industry Statistics from Gibson Consulting", "Quality of petrol and diesel fuel used for road transport in the European Union (Reporting year 2013)", "85-octane warning labels not posted at many gas stations", "95/93 – What is the Difference, Really? Thermal cracking produced large amounts of both mono- and diolefins (unsaturated hydrocarbons), which increased the risk of gumming. [71] [72] [73]. 100-octane aviation gasoline would be referred to as 130/100 grade.[43]. [108] Benzene and many antiknocking additives are carcinogenic. Gasoline. In the same year, the U.S. Army Air Force specified fuels rated at 87 octane for its aircraft as a result of studies it conducted. [48] The possibility of a complete ban of gasoline from America created friction in the Japanese government as to what action to take to secure more supplies from the Dutch East Indies and demanded greater oil exports from the exiled Dutch government after the Battle of the Netherlands. [97] In the United States, aviation gasoline (avgas) is dyed to identify its octane rating and to distinguish it from kerosene-based jet fuel, which is clear. [65] Material separated from crude oil via distillation, called virgin or straight-run gasoline, does not meet specifications for modern engines (particularly the octane rating; see below), but can be pooled to the gasoline blend. The bulk of a typical gasoline consists of a homogeneous mixture of small, relatively lightweight hydrocarbons with between 4 and 12 carbon atoms per molecule (commonly referred to as C4–C12). On the second day of battle, a unit of the XIX Corps was forced to halt when it ran out of gasoline. Lead replacement petrol (LRP) was developed for vehicles designed to run on leaded fuels and incompatible with unleaded fuels. [93] Pure hydrated ethanol is also available as a fuel. On 28 July, 1941, Japan invaded southern Indochina. All significant properties of fuels Maximum output achieved in 1943 reached 52,200 barrels a day before the Allies decided to target the synthetic fuel plants. 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The Archer Daniels Midland Corporation of Decatur, Illinois, better known as ADM, the world's largest grain processor, produces 40% of the ethanol used to make gasohol in the U.S.. … [103] About 1.525 kilograms per liter (12.73 lb/US gal) of CO2 are produced when pure ethanol is combusted. Gasoline, as delivered at the pump, also contains additives to reduce internal engine carbon buildups, improve combustion and allow easier starting in cold climates. 65, Aviation Gasoline Production and Control, Air Historical Office Headquarters, Army Air Forces, September, 1947, p. 2. Gasoline consumption per automobile declined from 755 gallons per year in 1941 down to 540 gallons in 1943, with the goal of preserving rubber for tires since the Japanese had cut the U.S. off from over 90 percent of its rubber supply which had come from the Dutch East Indies and the U.S. synthetic rubber industry was in its infancy. Straight-chain paraffins in the boiling range of gasoline had low antiknock qualities while ring-shaped molecules such as aromatic hydrocarbons (an example is benzene) had higher resistance to knocking. Almost all countries in the world have phased out automotive leaded fuel. Shell V-Power, BP Ultimate) with 99 RON make up the balance. Typical fuel stabilizers are proprietary mixtures containing mineral spirits, isopropyl alcohol, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene or other additives. Table2shows physicochemical properties and test methods in sample gasoline. Some important streams include: The terms above are the jargon used in the oil industry and terminology varies. composition as the gasoline of interest. This ban did not hinder the Japanese as their aircraft could operate with fuels below 87 octane and if needed they could add TEL to increase the octane. The average temperature decrease is 3.6 °F (2.0 °C) per 1,000-foot (300-meter) increase in altitude, and at 40,000 feet (12 km), the temperature can approach −70 °F (−57 °C). Currently, many countries set limits on gasoline aromatics in general, benzene in particular, and olefin (alkene) content. Substituted aromatics such as toluene, xylene and cumene combined with limited benzene solved the problem. The 1970s witnessed greater attention to the environmental consequences of burning gasoline. 2 This more detailed methodology has been used by the petrochemical industry to characterize feedstock impacts on product properties derived through chemical processing [8-12]. Chemical properties: Gasoline have different content in according to the content, it can be used for different purposes: Naphtha: distilled from crude oil and with few additives, it … As Japanese aggression grew in China (USS Panay incident) and news reached the American public of Japanese bombing of civilian centers, especially the bombing of Chungking, public opinion began to support a U.S. embargo. There are trace amounts of other hydrocarbons present such as benzene. Gasoline may contain oxygen-containing chemicals such as ethanol, MTBE or ETBE to improve combustion. By 1937, the Army established 100-octane as the standard fuel for combat aircraft and to add to the confusion, the government now recognized 14 different grades, in addition to 11 others in foreign countries. Throughout the duration of the war, aviation gasoline supply was always behind requirements and this impacted training and operations. The most popular additives include aromatic hydrocarbons, ethers and alcohol (usually ethanol or methanol). Arguments in favor of ethanol are the search for decreased dependency on oil producing countries and the decreased net ouptut of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. Gasoline is produced in oil refineries. Countries in Europe impose substantially higher taxes on fuels such as gasoline when compared to the United States. As it turned out, Japan bought 550 percent more sub-87 octane aviation gasoline in the five months after the July 1940, ban on higher octane sales. In Finland, most gasoline stations sell 95E10, which is 10% ethanol, and 98E5, which is 5% ethanol. Impact of Chemical Properties of Gasoline on Engine Combustion and Engine-out Emissions Koji OYAMA* and Tadahide SONE JX Nippon Oil & Energy Corp., 6-3 Otemachi 2-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8162, JAPAN Gasoline, when used in high-compression internal combustion engines, tends to autoignite or "detonate" causing damaging engine knocking (also called "pinging" or "pinking"). The reason for this shortage developed before the war even began. For example, in Southern California, fuel must contain 2% oxygen by weight, resulting in a mixture of 5.6% ethanol in gasoline. [132] The price of gas varies considerably between the summer and winter months. Initially, all the programs were related to volatility and fuel consumption, ease of starting, crankcase oil dilution and acceleration.[33]. Algeria replaced leaded with unleaded automotive fuel only in 2015. [15][16] The term is used most widely in Nigeria, where the largest petroleum companies call their product "premium motor spirit". A fuel designated grade 130 would produce 130 percent as much power in an engine as it would running on pure iso-octane. They are more characterized by their physical properties such as flammability and solvency. [126] More recently, the U.S. experienced an upswing in gasoline prices through 2011,[127] and by 1 March 2012, the national average was $3.74 per gallon. Neither the Army nor the Navy could contract more than six months in advance for fuel and they could not supply the funds for plant expansion. [21], Gradually, volatility gained favor over the Baumé test, though both would continue to be used in combination to specify a gasoline. even predicted that a nation with a good supply of high-octane gasoline would have the advantage in air power. How the gasoline is made determines which chemicals are present in the gasoline mixture and how much of each is present. This situation led to the decision to attack the U.S. fleet at Pearl Harbor before proceeding with the Dutch East Indies invasion. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has also designated gasoline as a carcinogen. In 1929, the octane rating scale was adopted, and in 1930, the first octane specification for aviation fuels was established. Research by the major refiners led to the development of processes involving isomerization of cheap and abundant butane to isobutane, and alkylation to join isobutane and butylenes to form isomers of octane such as "isooctane", which became an important component in aviation fuel blending. At $485 this was an expensive option that few consumers could afford and would only appeal to the performance oriented consumer market willing to pay for the premium fuel required. [10], In most Commonwealth countries, the product is called "petrol", rather than "gasoline". Cassell discovered that a shopkeeper in Dublin named Samuel Boyd was selling counterfeit cazeline and wrote to him to ask him to stop. Roughly 19 U.S. gallons (72 L) of gasoline is derived from a 42-U.S.-gallon (160 L) barrel of crude oil. [25] If abnormal combustion were to occur, the engine could lose enough power to make getting airborne impossible and a take-off roll became a threat to the pilot and aircraft. The advantages of petroleum oil soon found the navies of the world converting to oil, but Britain and Germany had very few domestic oil reserves. On 7 December, 1941, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor and the next day the Netherlands declared war on Japan which initiated the Dutch East Indies campaign. Quality gasoline should be stable for six months if stored properly, but as gasoline is a mixture rather than a single compound, it will break down slowly over time due to the separation of the components. The general was so upset at the arrival of a truckload of rations instead of gasoline he was reported to have shouted: "Hell, they send us food, when they know we can fight without food but not without oil. The resulting fuel is often known as reformulated gasoline (RFG) or oxygenated gasoline, or in the case of California, California reformulated gasoline. [31] One journal stated, "...on a multi-cylinder engine in a high-priced car we are diluting the oil in the crankcase as much as 40 percent in a 200-mile run, as the analysis of the oil in the oil-pan shows. Also, the growing electrification of lighting produced a drop in kerosene demand, creating a supply problem. Molecular weights of the representative octane combustion are C8H18 114, O2 32, CO2 44, H2O 18; therefore 1 kg of fuel reacts with 3.51 kg of oxygen to produce 3.09 kg of carbon dioxide and 1.42 kg of water. By 1938 the price was down to 17.5 cents a gallon, only 2.5 cents more than 87 octane fuel. The usage of the terms paraffin and olefin in place of the standard chemical nomenclature alkane and alkene, respectively, is particular to the oil industry. The engine effects produced by abnormal combustion (engine knocking and pre-ignition) due to inferior fuels had not yet been identified, and as a result there was no rating of gasoline in terms of its resistance to abnormal combustion. The higher the amount of the benzene in gasoline as is clear from this statement is, the better for gasoline engines. [76] By this time the Rolls-Royce Merlin 66 was developing 2,000 hp using this fuel. This area had never been self-sufficient in oil before the war. A gasoline-fueled internal combustion engine obtains energy from the combustion of gasoline's various hydrocarbons with oxygen from the ambient air, yielding carbon dioxide and water as exhaust. ,��8��L�O �� endstream endobj startxref 0 %%EOF 227 0 obj <>stream [49] On 25 July, 1941, the U.S. froze all Japanese financial assets and licenses would be required for each use of the frozen funds including oil purchases that could produce aviation gasoline. The situation was only resolved when the American Petroleum Institute (API) initiated a conference to address "The Fuel Problem" and a Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) Committee was established in 1920, to oversee joint investigative programs and solutions. On 27 November 1862, the British publisher, coffee merchant and social campaigner John Cassell placed an advertisement in The Times of London: The Patent Cazeline Oil, safe, economical, and brilliant … possesses all the requisites which have so long been desired as a means of powerful artificial light. Oil and its byproducts, especially high-octane aviation gasoline, would prove to be a driving concern for how Germany conducted the war. O : Premium Gasoline Delivers Premium Benefits to Your Car", "Why is summer fuel more expensive than winter fuel? Sulfur – A chemical element naturally occurring in crude oil and is present in gasoline which has an adverse effect on catalytic converters and other internal combustion engine aftertreatment devices. The record of gasoline consumption by the Army prior to June, 1943, was uncoordinated as each supply service of the Army purchased its own petroleum products and no centralized system of control nor records existed. This lower density is a property of the lower molecular weight of propane (LPG's chief component) compared to gasoline's blend of various hydrocarbon compounds with heavier molecular weights than propane. The US CDC's Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry says not to induce vomiting, lavage, or administer activated charcoal. This research has been conducted to investigate the impact of chemical properties of gasoline on engine-out emissions, especially for the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x), through engine experiments using fifteen types of gasoline (model fuels) and the engine combustion analysis. These tests resulted in the first government specifications for motor gasolines (aviation gasolines used the same specifications as motor gasolines) in late 1917.[26]. But even this soon was inadequate. Motor fuel, Motor spirits, Natural gasoline, Petrol [Note: A complex mixture of volatile hydrocarbons (paraffins, cycloparaffins, and aromatics).] From 1 January 1996, the U.S. Clean Air Act banned the sale of leaded fuel for use in on-road vehicles in the U.S. As octane numbers increased so did the cost of gasoline but the incremental increase in efficiency becomes less as compression ratio goes up. gal; 121,000 Btu/U.S. By 1941, principally through the efforts of the Cooperative Fuel Research Committee, the number of grades for aviation fuels was reduced to three: 73, 91 and 100 octane. Apart from representatives of the two industries, the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) also played an instrumental role, with the U.S. Bureau of Standards being chosen as an impartial research organization to carry out many of the studies. The Oxford English Dictionary dates its first recorded use to 1863, when it was spelled "gasolene". 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